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New World wines: Argentina



The historical record of how winemaking started in Argentina as far back in the late 16th century when Spanish vines were brought into the country by Spanish missionaries and conquistadors. Though the history of winemaking is not as vibrant as that of its counterparts like France and Italy, they made it up to standard through the quality of wines they produce. What really favored winemaking in Argentina apart from the great growing regions? Tthe beautiful weather and the soil nature of the country. Argentina is so blessed with longer sunny seasons than cold seasons. The longer photoperiod allows for early grape maturity and also with the best flavor. In complement to the weather factor, Argentine soils are fertile and well cared for. Most wines respond to the quality of fruits produced by Argentine viticulturists.

In the world of winemaking, Argentina is stunningly rising as one of the most popular producers and exporters of red wine. Argentina is the largest in South America taking more than 45% of the continent’s production and 5th in the world after Italy, France, Spain, and the USA. Argentina wine industry is growing especially in its export value to the international market.

The Argentine wine industry is dominated by popular wine producers from Europe and America producing their wines using sophisticated technologies. You will find Familia Zuccardi, Colome, Bodegas Salentein, Trapiche, and Familia Schroeder. Argentina’s wine industry has been quite impressive with just about 1,300 wineries with small land area and less populated. These wineries produce exceptional wine tastes that compete with other finest wines from its top counterparts. Subsequently, Argentina has won awards in several international competitions. The largest one is the Decanter World Wine Awards (DWWA) 2018 edition where Argentina won 378 medals.

Argentine wines offered in a variety of red and white varieties, are among the best wines to include in your collections. Argentina is popular in winemaking for its most sought Red Malbec brand. Other red wines include Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Merlot. If you are in search of white wines, go for Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Riesling.

There are three principal winemaking regions in Argentina – The Mandoza, San Juan and La Rioja.

The Mendoza region has been the most important wine regions since the start of the industry. This is because it produces more than 60% of the country’s total production. The first French vines in the region were grown in 1880 by a French botanist. Some varieties were also introduced by winemakers from Italy and Spain. Mendoza is naturally dry with less water, but thanks to the impressive physical geography of the Andes that surround the region to the west. In the hot summer months, the Andes provide water from melting snow and cool breezes at night.

San Juan is another leading region in the ranking of second wine production after Mendoza. Although the environment is much hotter and drier than Mendoza. San Juan is popular for the quality of the production of high-quality red varieties of Syrah. This region is also known for the production of spirits and vermouth.

The La Rioja region is known to produce more red wines than other varieties. About 75% of the wines produced in the region are red grape varieties, others are whites and rosés. Majority of the production comes from crushing a Spanish grape variety, Tempranillo to produce a single wine from the Rioja vineyard.

New World wines: Chile


Chile is one of the best places to explore amongst wine producing countries in the world. Since the inception of the Spanish vine, Chile has gone on to become home to best winemakers in the world. Chile occupies a long narrow strip area down the western coast of the South American continent and often overshadowed by its European competitors. Nonetheless, Chilean wine has gradually grown and today is available in the world export market.

Over the past 30 years, Chile has been exploring its wine production from grapevines planted by viticulturists in 1548 and imported varieties from Bordeaux in the 1800s. The Chilean wine industry experienced a significant change in the 1990s when it started exporting its wines which have been consumed domestically in the past. Since then, the world’s interest in the quality and value of Chilean wines have substantially increased. The growth and evolution of the Chilean wine industry with technology have increased the export net revenue from about US$182 million to US$2 billion from 1995 to 2018. As of 2018, Chile is placed on the 4th position of the world wine export by countries and still maintains its status as a top wine producing country globally.

Chile is best at producing versatile brands of white and red wines among which include Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Carménère, and Pinot Noir. Chile have won several awards in different international wine competitions. Interestingly, Chile recently added a feather to its cap after winning 438 medals which include five platinum medals in the 2018 Decanter World Wine Awards (DWWA), the world’s biggest wine competition. The success from various wine competitions has seen many European wine producers going on a tour to Chilean wineries to know more about their method of production. Chilean wine regions and wineries are an incredible place to visit as one of the largest wine producers in the world. The main regions include Maipo, Casablanca and Aconcagua. Various surrounding landscapes influence the climate of these regions. The Andes, the Pacific Ocean, the Patagonia and the Atacama Desert in the East, West, South and North respectively, have a cooling effect to cool the warm climate and support the cultivation of grapevines. 

Chile offers more than 20 different grape varieties, with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot still the most popular. Chilean farmers are also interested in experimenting with various grape varieties and even some varieties of Gewurztraminer and Viognier. However, they have not yet been developed on a large scale. One of Chile’s biggest claims on viticulture is the rare harvest of Carmenere. In the 20th century, many wine experts were afraid of the Chilean wines Merlot and Sauvignon Blanc. To achieve this goal, ampelographers were hired to test the wines and vines used in production. The results showed that the Merlot was actually an old Carmenere vine from the Bordeaux region, which is now thought to be extinct, as well as Sauvignon – Sauvignon vine. Since then, Chilean farmers have successfully introduced the Merlot and Sauvignon Blanc varieties and France has reintroduced the Carmenere grape variety.

Chilean wines are world-class wines that you will love.

Soil-Less Farming


Inside the small room of the Mebiol Research and Development Center’, located in the outskirts of Tokyo, a one-hour drive distance, we have leaves of baby Cos Lettuce growing inside a tray lit with magenta – colored’ lights. From the shelf is a blooming microgreen miniature garden grown on a salad dish. The seedlings are germinated without using cultivated soil but just a top thin’ transparent film polymer.

The film of the polymer is the main cutting-edge method of farming which enhances the growth of vegetables and fruits on any given flat exterior. Having been constructed by use of hydrogel’, it is supper’ absorbent material which is generally used on household products, for example, the disposable diapers. The film efficiently operates by soaking the nutrients and water through several non-sized openings that measure a diameter of a millionth of a millimeter.

The plant usually grows on the film, although no ground digging, instead, the roots spread across the surface of the membrane with formations like that of a fan. The polymer technologies for the industry of medical were developed by Mori. He all along loved the biology of plant and was inspired by the adaptability of the kingdom of vegetables.

On several occasions’ plants are highly remarkable compared to human beings, reason being, they are able to sustain life on earth by acting as the source of food for the animals and gets rid of carbon iv oxide in the air.

The whole idea of using polymer technology in agriculture got into him through building artificial’ kidney over 20′ years ago. Mori wanted to know whether the mechanism that was used in the construction of membrane filters and synthetic blood vessels could be used as a medium of growth for the vegetables. Plants have the capacity to solve various societal problems starting at the lifestyle diseases all the way to environmental challenges.

Mori began this venture by growing a grass patch on the hydrogel’ film by use of LED lights. After a period of 10 years of experimentation, Mori alongside his counterparts created a soil-free farming’ system which could be used towards the cultivation of crops inside greenhouses over a large scale.

According to a study that was carried out in the year 2015′ at the University of Sheffield’s Granthan’ Centre, the earth’s arable land has been lost as a result of pollution and erosion over the last 40′ years. Also, the effects of heavy fertilizer and over-cultivation use have highly degraded the soil at a very high rate. Extreme weather conditions and climate change have increased soil erosion, and at the same time exacerbating the situation.

The loss of soil fertility on the land has come at a time when the demand for food has increased. By the year 2050, the production of food is likely to hit 50% to be able to successfully feed the increasing population of 9 billion.

Shortage of water is likely to risk food security. The fresh water has gone down plummeted alongside the decline in soil’ affecting at least 2-thirds of Africa. Film farming will provide a great alternative for resource-intensive agriculture. The Mebiol system utilizes 90% of water compared to the conventional method of farming.

The small pores of polymer membrane help to block viruses and bacteria, getting rid of the needs for dangerous pesticides. Because soil is not important for this method, sustainable’ farms could be established in any place, be it a desert, rooftops and even a highly contaminated piece of land.

Currently, this method can be utilized in around 150’ locations in China and Japan and in the desert of the United Arab Emirates. Mebiol is considering providing this technology to Europe and some other nations in the Middle East.

Most of the farmers didn’t have much confidence regarding this method, but now it has been adopted by younger producers, for example, the president’ of Drop Farm, Ayaka Miura that grows boutique tomatoes’. Since polymer film relies on water molecules, the plants must also struggle to absorb nutrients and water. Stress is likely to make them develop high levels of amino acids, sugars, and phytochemicals.

In Japan, these products are mainly sold in high-end departments stores, but also, the tomatoes are being grown on Menus at the restaurants, for example, Tokyo’s Celeb’ de Tomato’. Also, the upscale eateries such as Dubai’ Le Petit Maison’ will start to use the ingredients during the spring season.

New World wines: Australia


Australia produced 1.29 billion liters of wine in 2018 ranking the country as the 6th largest producer of wine globally. More than 60% of the total production in volume is exported annually to the world market. Based on an export value of 849 million liters that generated $2.8 billion as of 2018, Australia is ranked the 5th largest exporter of wine after France, Italy, Spain, and Chile. The Australian wine industry contributes significantly to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the economy. Revenue of over $40 billion is generated annually to the economy.

Approximately 2,468 wineries produce fruity red, white and sparkling wines from quality grapefruits. The top five wineries are Penfolds, Hardys, Wynns Coonawarra Estate, Yarra Yering and Morris.

There are 65 regions in all the States of Australia where the wines are produced. Many grape varieties are cultivated, harvested and crushed in each of the regions. South Australia is the most famous wine producing State having 18 regions. This is because the State produces more than 50% of the total production volume. The best quality wines produced in Australia have been helpful to the tourism industry of the country. Many Australians and foreigners visit these regions as tourist attraction centers. Therefore, an overall boom of these regions.

The grapes used in winemaking are not locally originated from Australia. The major wine types which include Shiraz, Sauvignon Blanc, Sparkling white, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay are made from grapes that were introduced to Australia and have been domesticated. Vitis vinifera grape (Syrah), locally domesticated as Shiraz was introduced to Australia from Europe and South Africa. 

Shiraz takes 30% of the total vineyard regions in Australia, making it the most preferred variety for making wines. Based on the policy that wines are to be named from the dominant grapefruit, Shiraz wine was named after the grape. Recently, wineries have also been using imported varieties from France, Italy, and Spain such as Petit Verdot, Sangiovese, Tempranillo, and Viognier. Australian viticulturists also cultivate Cienna and Tarrango varieties.

Shiraz wines are particularly a preferred choice because they come in a lot of styles. The cheap, tasty wines with ripe plum and blackberry fruit express distinct characteristics from the regions they are produced from such as spice and pepper from the cool-climate areas like Yarra Valley and the Adelaide Hills.

Australia will continue to be recognized as one of the top wine producing countries in the world.

Some tips about growing peppers #2


Pepper is a tender and easy-to-grow vegetable or spice crop that is suitable for garden farming. Pepper (Capsicum spp.) belong to the family Solanaceae, and there are very many varieties. Popular varieties of pepper are Capsicum annum (bell pepper), C. chinense (bonnet pepper), C. baccatum (chile pepper), C. frutescens (chili pepper) and C. pubescens (rocoto pepper)
Adaptation: Pepper is adapted to a variety of climate and soil. It can grow both under shade and sunlight conditions. It is however best under sunlight conditions. Sunlight helps the quality of the pepper because the ascorbic acid content is higher than those produced under shade. Peppers are cultivated in many countries of the world.
Location: The choice of location is important in growing pepper. An optimum warm climate of about 27oC is necessary for proper seed germination and growth, but they can survive in lower temperatures. Starting peppers indoors and transplanting them outdoors when they pop up is the best method for growing peppers but there is nothing wrong with starting the growth process outside.
Soil requirements: A moist sandy-loam soil with high organic matter content is required for optimum growth. The pH of the soil should be around 6.2 – 6.7. Pepper is susceptible to root-knot nematode infection and thus, should not follow other crops such as cowpea, pepper, okra, garden egg, which are also susceptible to root-knot nematode.
Planting: Pepper is cultivated using seeds or transplants. Seeds can be extracted from ripe pepper fruits and dried. Seeds germinate readily and lose viability also very quickly. Seeds germinate within 14 – 21 days. The seeds should be established in a nursery before transplanting to the field when seedlings are 4 to 6 inches tall from 6 to 10 weeks old. Transplanted seedlings perform better than direct sowing. The optimum plant spacing for most pepper cultivars is approximately 18 to 24 inches.
Fertilizer application: Application of fertilizer is required when the soil fertility is low. Pepper needs Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium to enhance growth and fruit development. A good slow-release fertilizer to use is NPK 20-20-20. However, as the plant develops, much Phosphorous and Potassium is needed than Nitrogen. Excess of Nitrogen reduces fruiting. Fertilizer application is done two weeks after planting.
Weed management: Weeding must be done regularly within 2 – 3 weeks.
Pest management: Pests and diseases must be managed intensively. Pest and disease of pepper include nematodes, fungal diseases, fusarium wilt, mildew, bacteria, and viruses. Check your pepper plants regularly against pest infestation. Apply organic pesticides to get rid of pests.
Harvesting: Ripe fruits are harvested by hand picking, and the yield obtainable depends on good management practices. Most pepper cultivars ripe in about 60 – 90 days and hot peppers can be up to 150 days. Fruits could be harvested full green, half ripe or fully ripe depending on its utilization. Due to perishability, fruits should be harvested when half ripe.
Storage and processing: Harvested pepper is packed in wooden boxes/crates and taken to a processing industry or market as fresh produce. The fruits should be refrigerated to preserve it for more extended period. A temperature of 5 – 10°C and relative humidity of 80% are best for storing pepper.

Climate Change and Variations to help Contain The Situation


The change of the climate is on the verge and different activities associated with human, for example, urbanization, food production and industrialization are the main contributors. The production of food alone contributes to close to 25% of the emissions associated with global carbon. On the opposite, the variation of weather patterns and regular harsh weather conditions have highly contributed to climate change which has greatly affected the supply of food around the world.

Deforestation affects the production of food negatively, this means if trees are not sufficient to absorb carbon dioxide it leads to the greenhouse effect. Also, the pesticide and fertilizers that are used in crop protection have led to a decrease of the insect and the general soil fertility. This happens because microbial organisms that makes the soil fertile have also been affected making it difficult for the plants to get nutrients.

The world population is growing at a very high rate. We are expected to hit at least 9.5′ billion people by the year 2050. To act upon these anticipations, the United Nations Food and Agriculture’ Organization (FAO) is pushing for at least 60% increase on the food resources without having to increase the size of the farm land.

It is not very clear how these intensification are going to be realized. Other strategies such as organic farming are highly respected for the insect life and the soil ecology and may help towards restoration of the soil fertility.

The whole idea about the production of food is under discussion, although according to FAO, there are at least 821m individuals facing hunger strikes. An estimate that was carried out by the biologist states that’ current food production can satisfy at least 14 billion’ people. But you realize, around a third of this particular food goes into waste because of the ineffective methods of supply, unequal distribution of food and unsustainable and unhealthy diets.

Therefore, the experts in the department of food should not only put emphasis on the intensification of agriculture, but also, on the strategies that will help to change consumption patterns and avoid wastage of food. There are 3 areas where the best changes should be adopted. They include:

  1. Recycling of the food Waste

Consumption of food should be made circular. This therefore, means that the organic waste for example, food’ scraps should not be directed into the landfill; instead, they should be changed into biogas and compost. Currently, the organic waste is what is recycled at a lower level. With countries for example, the Netherlands and Germany leading there are those that are still behind. These are good technologies which have been invented to make the whole process easier.

The Local Energy Adventure Partnership have come up with anaerobic’ digester that is made for the urban’ context. This is a machine that will help to change the organic waste from commercial buildings or residential into biogas and compost which can help to fuel the growth of food in urban areas. Food waste needs to be treated in the right manner. They can be used as the animal fodder

  1. Urban Farming

This is another highly effective method to help lower down the demand for agricultural land through growing food’ around cities where it is highly needed hence reducing the distance which food has to be transported. This is aimed to enable the producers to be able to map and perfectly match the demands by the consumers easily through engaging production in areas where food is only consumed.

A good number of researches have been made on the urban agriculture and how cities can support it. It can be approached through hydroponic systems. This helps to carry out cultivation from a vertical surface. It is a principle of city planning in order to take care of land rooftops and other spaces for the growth of food.

In urban areas, it is also possible to identify innovations which are designed to simplify the urban farming and make it sustainable. For example, the Farmhouse’ is one modular housing system that utilizes vertical stacking. This enables residents to easily grow food.

  1. Changing Diets

This option is aimed at encouraging individuals to change diets. The uprising of people earning middle incomes is taking high quantities of cheese, meat and eggs. In China, since the year 1990, consumption of beef and poultry has greatly increased. The diet related to farm animals is very heavy on grains, which can be consumed by people more easily.

Therefore, encouraging people to eat more of meat will help reduce pressure on the food system of the world. Around cities, research institutions, governments, communities and communities should come together and pool together food’ initiatives in order to assure people healthier, more sustainable and cheaper choices, although this needs good political coexistence and organization among various levels of government.

It is very clear that every approach is associated with limited action scope when compared to strategies and the agriculture techniques which can be provided at the industrial level. With many proposals, there could be several approaches which make it highly efficient to use on already existing resources around the cities. With the above changes, effective policies on sovereignty and food justice can help towards the establishment of fair food supply’ chains and efficient distribution of the food around the world.

Tricks To Grow An Avocado Tree.


Growing an avocado tree may sound very simple but it requires patience. It may sound simple because every garden beginner may it be an adult or kids can do so. But patience and the care taken to the avocado tree is the main thing. There are activities or processes that are done to an avocado tree that is worth waiting. These tasks include:

  1. You are likely to start an avocado tree from the seed.
  2. Then planting the avocado tree outdoors.
  3. It calls for you now to start caring for that seedling which is a future avocado tree.
  4. Finally enjoying the results of your patience.

Having the above knowledge of what it takes to plant the avocado seed, it is enough to say that you must be patient enough for you to get the avocado tree fruits.

How to Plant the Avocado Tree.

Basically, there are processes that one should follow while planting an Avocado tree. These processes are

  1. The avocado seed is got from the avocado fruit. Wash and dry it.
  2. Add water in a jar to the brim.
  3. Locating the broad end of the seed, make sure that the broad endpoint down the water in the jar.
  4. Around the pit, press three toothpicks. This will, in turn, suspend the pit from the rim of the jar with water. Then place the toothpick about one inch from the avocado pit in the water.
  5. Make sure you place that jar together with the avocado pit away from direct sunlight. A window sill is highly recommended.
  6. Replenishing water is needed thus after two to six weeks the pit start to sprout.
  7. If there is no sprout noted, the process should begin with another seed.
  8. When the sprout reaches six to seven inches it should be cut by a half.
  9. When the roots have begun growing thick and stem start having leaves transfer the seedling into a pot with a bigger diameter whereby half of the seed should be exposed above the soils in the pot.

Planting an Avocado tree Outdoor

Avocados are known best to be tropical plants. This means that they are not meant for very cold places. Places like California, Florida, and most of the Southernmost parts, their temperatures rarely drop to freezing points. Thus it is good to plant the sprouted seed outdoors and do so in spring before the winter season sets in. The avocado tree should be protected from winds and frosts. Avocados should not be planted deep on the ground since they have shallow roots.

Avocado Tree Plant Care

To ensure that your avocado tree grows well, make sure that:

  1. You keep the avocado plant in warm and sunny areas.
  2. Keep the plant moist and not saturated by watering it frequently and make sure that the soils drain very well to prevent saturation.
  3. Cut down the stem if it grows to more than six inches to encourage a bushier look.
  4. Plant your seed when it is big enough for those who leave in a warm climate. After some years it will definitely bear fruits.
  5. Make sure you add some fertilizers to facilitate the rapid growth of the avocado plant.

Definitely, after taking good care of the avocado plant and being patient enough you will get the best results. The tree will bear you fruits that you will wait untill they mature, then pick them for indoors.

Considerations For Buying And/Or Selling The Farmland


People easily say how it is easy to buy and sell farmland. It may not be possible to remain on the set budget when the excess farm is required to generate more income as well as reducing the expenditures. Since yields increase over the years, the productive lands eventually gain more profits that their initial costs since they will have e good investment returns. Though the economy in farms now make most of the farmers wonder on the most feasible way of selling or buying the lands. In the article here, we have the best ideas and lessons for you if you need to rent, buy, invest, or sell the land.

Lands for sale

If you have a developing family, or there is a representative at home who take care of the land, when you buy land, you will be capable of controlling bigger farmlands for family. The most ten things that you should identify concerning farmland will make a base to you on knowing the best market concerning the fertile land to be sold.

If you need to sell or buy the farm, you can do your activities with the most trusted farm auctioneers in the Midwest. When the investment has a good return, then many bidders will come to your land auction. Positive investment return has made many lands in the Midwest to be strong from some years back.

Cheap Farm For Sale

Cheap farmlands are available for sale, but they don’t come that easily. If you want to have credits, then look for the farm where you have never been, in the adjacent state, and you may study more about optional crops. You should also look at various tilled acres. You should know some ideas that will help you in getting better farm credits in America and where you can purchase the land at low prices.

The Farm Market

Those issue about the repetition of land’s issue that was in 1890 is no more. Now, from 2014, the article here has shown the way the cost of lands is increasing in the Midwest. In our case, the real estate in U.S land approximate value was $1,482 in one acre back in 2000, and it recorded in 2015 worth $3,065 in one acre as from the USDA.

Almost all farmers need to know how the farm costs of agriculture may be very expensive when the products inside are of low prices.due to many investments in various generations to the farmers that use an average cost of the dollar; they should always keep in mind that finances are from margins. You need to know the way farmers can get expensive farmland costs.

Lands For Renting

It is not that when you purchase land, you have made the correct decision. You can decide to lease. If you get a leasing farm then identify its agreement, it should be an ideal agreement for every party so that you can agree on seeing the deal well closed.

You should remember finalizing the deal with a written agreement since most of the farm deals are closed with the handshake. When you get the duties and agreement on the paper, you will identify and resolve any available problems before they even become big deals. If you need more things to consider, the five main myths concerning leasing the farm may be your savior in other damages before you close your business.

In leasing terms, the owner of the farm has the decision according to the mode of payment which may be dividing the crop between them, renting for flexibility option, or renting by cash which is a very simple idea on renting the farm and is commonly used. However, its computation may be difficult because of the client’s requirements and rates. There are seven ways one can follow to perfectly calculate the cash for renting which is widely used hence helps one in rental calculations.

Selling The Farm

If you need your expenditures to balance, at a point you will need to sell the land. Despite auctioning land being the best way of exposing the land you want to sale, it exposes you which is not a good idea. You need to identify the needs of your investors and the alternatives you have for you to close the sale successfully by getting the best prices. You need to consider this article on the tips that will help you in selling your farm.

Farm Investment

Most investment returns are realized from fertile acres of the farm. Farmers that ask themselves why the land price doesn’t match the products in the farm, you should see in this article the reason that makes land expensive and also knows the time farm prices will be sensible.

Investors and farmers from America have more other people of which they both purchase the land. For instance, there is a company in Chinese that bought U.S pork Smith-field producer foods in 2013 worth $4.6 billion which also bought more than 145,000 acres. The business was controversial which led to some concerns dealing with purchasing foreign farmland.

NASA Scientist Have Embarked on Growth of Plants In Space


Necessity is Inspiring NASA To Engage in Growth of Plants In Space and Other’ Worlds

Whenever NASA sends an astronaut to Mars they must be provided with enough food to sustain their lives during the trip. You realize freezing-dried’ pre-packaged meals for a mission of 2.5′ years to the Red Planet’ is likely to consume a lot of weight and sufficient room for an interplanetary vehicle. For a journey to Mars, weight is highly important. The less weight carried the better, at the same time, this food many lose it great taste or the freshness.

This situation has, therefore, compelled NASA to develop an interest in how they can supplement the astronauts’ diets with some plants which can be grown on the space or other worlds. They have found seeds that take less space and not weighty compared to prepared food.

Therefore, scientist’ at NASA Kennedy’ Space Center has been carrying out experiments on how to grow vegetables and plants on a simulated environment of the space. These environments include the microgravity areas of the International Space’ Station and the outside world which have less gravity compared to that of the Earth, Mars, and Moon.

At Kennedy, the scientists have done experiments with varied lighting and temperatures in order to tell of the environments that are most favorable for the growth of the plants. They are also working hard towards the simulation of conditions on the ISS’ to tell of the plants that can effectively do well on low Earth Orbit. NASA is also trying to think of how they can grow plants using little soil by use of methods such as aeroponic and hydroponics.

The hydroponics involves the delivery of nutrients and water to the roots of the plants through the use of liquid solutions, while with aeroponics’ plants is usually grown on an environment that has misty hair. These two methods help to avoid the necessity for much dirt that is so heavy and in the long run, may consume a lot of space on the rocket.

Water is known to exhibit different behavior, especially in environments with low gravity. It compacts together in a very weird manner than it would do on earth, which makes it a bit tricky especially on the water root plants. Nonetheless, NASA, have recorded great success on the growth of vegetables on the International’ Space Station. Through the research by NASA, the astronauts have successfully grown and eaten these same plants in the ISS. The first experiment they carried out involved the growth of the red’ romaine lettuce on clay pillows rather than the soil.

Scientists have developed an interest in using the interplanetary soil in the growth of the plants in the future. However, the ‘soil’ which is found on Mars and Moon is not really a normal soil. It’s a regolith’ or rocky, loose material which is made from the volcanic ash that lacks sufficient organic materials. The regolith’ found on Mars is not clean at all. The Rovers found on Mars have discovered a kind of salt that is referred to as the perchlorates in dirt which is highly dangerous for human consumption when taken in high quantities. It is very possible that astronauts have been able to clean the regolith by use of chemical solutions or some other types of bacteria, although the method has not been fleshed out.

The mastery of skills on how to grow the plant in space and other worlds is very crucial for the future astronauts who will be traveling for long-duration’ missions outside the earth. The plant-based food is not only essential for nutrition but also effective for the supplementation of pre-packaged diet alongside vegetables that could be effective for the stressed-out astronauts missing their home. A number of astronauts’ have confirmed that whenever they travel to space they usually miss great foods for their planet. Gioia Massa’ a scientist of NASA studying the production of food in space at the Kennedy Space’ Center informed The Verge’, that having juicy, fresh, crunchy’ texture on their diet is highly crucial.

The Green Revolution Made by CRISPR. Re-domestication of Vegetables and Fruits


In the early’ 20th century, there was a strange tomato which sprouted in the Northeastern’ the United States. Due to genetic mutation, the branches of the plant grew shorter than they should be. This, therefore, led to more compact crops making harvesting easier. According to Joyce Van Eck’ a biologist specialist in plants from Thompson Institute in New’ York, the plant’s traits revolutionized’ the production of commercial tomato.

Other great qualities which are associated with tomatoes came by chance. Over several years of selective’ breeding, the fruit evolved from pea size to the size of an apple. The ripening was more streamlined in an effort to ensure tomatoes sold at the supermarket had a uniform red color. The farmers who fell for these great features inadvertently lost others such as nutritional value, flavor, and the ability to resist drought.

The genetic history of tomato is its typical produce and by accident of genetic mutation we have practically ended up with vegetable and fruit. Well, Van Eck’ is one of the greatest geneticist’ who envisions other effective approaches to activation. Her lab is on the verge to rekindle the history. They have started with the wild crop ancestors and their related modern ‘crop plants, which comes with their own amazing features. Therefore, utilizing gene-editing’ technology known as the CRISPR-Cas9 is giving more attractive traits to commercial products.

This idea was tried in the year 2016 when a group of the university including the University of Sao Paulo’ brought the idea of planning towards re-domesticating the tomatoes. In the paper which they published on Plant Science, they were able to identify several essential characters, for example, the size of the fruit, and the length of the branch and they revealed that the attractive modern’ versions of these particular traits resulted from the change of their functions. If they were to change those genes, they could be able to secure redo-domestication.

The CRISPR -Cs9 system was launched in the year 2013, which was an adorable job. When it injected inside the nucleus of a cell, the system is able to successfully get rid of the predetermined sequence of genes. The CRISPR -Cas9 was used on a wild tomato to shaping the DNA in order to guide the growth of long shoots. This resulted in a more compact plant alongside ancient characteristics such as nutrients and flavor.

Late last’ year Peres’ made a test in the lab, on the Nature Biotechnology, whereby he and many other colleagues found that it was possible to regulate the length of the branch and boost the size of the fruit and the general yields. Important fruits such as the antioxidant, and lycopene could also be improved.

The viability of this strategy was put under verification by another great independent researcher at the Chinese’ Academy’ of the Sciences which was published’ last year. Through the use of the same technique, they were able to introduce commercial and more valuable traits and at the same time retaining tomato plants which are resistance to droughts. These highly resilient versions can successfully withstand the effects brought about by the change of climate.

The ancestral’ relatives of modern crops have proved to be the perfect start. In fact, as Peres and Kudla were struggling to separate the tomato plants, Van Eck’ was busy enlisting CRISPR aimed at improving the commercial’ ground cherries. Cherry is a distant tomato’ sold by the farmer’s markets which is very flavorful, nutritious and highly impractical. The fruit is very minuscule where their branch drops off when it is ripe, which makes it a bit difficult when it comes to harvesting. These problems were fixed by Van Eck’ where he compared genes of the ground cherries and the genes’ of domesticated tomatoes where he singled out the similar ones.

Most of the people are now seeking more information from Van Eck’ on other potential crops. She says that a farmer from Nigeria informed her that they had indigenous grains which were naturally resistance to droughts. The plant does not produce a lot of seeds and has unwieldy growth’ pattern which makes it challenging when it comes to harvesting. She is conducting an investigation in the lab on mutations that are likely to make it easy to harvest.

With the good capacity to guide the plants through various cultivation pathways or exploring what would have happened if the ancestors had taken some crops, CRISPR has been able to turn out the speculations into reality. This is aimed at taking care of the future which is likely to have more individuals feeding on them.

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