Almost every country or state in the world depends on agriculture for food, raw materials for their industries and employment to most people. Despite that, agriculture and water are the most vulnerable sectors, and this makes it hard to maintaining food security in the whole world. Being a vulnerable sector, it has many problems that affect the farmers who drive it.
Farmers in most parts of the world undergo post-harvest losses which contribute to high percentage losses and sometimes farmers could lose everything. Post-harvest losses are associated with poor or inadequate storage facilities and conditions. Many farmers do not have the proper storage facilities needed to store their harvest. This poor storage condition creates an appropriate environment for storage pests and diseases to manifest themselves. Storage pest cause pronounced damage to grains or any other stored product. Wet conditions in the stores provide a room for the growth of fungal diseases like aflatoxins. Loses incurred during harvest and after harvest is significant problems facing farmers currently in the whole world.
Since the economy is highly dependent on climatic sensitive sectors agriculture being one of them, it is bound to face some challenges. Farmers currently are living in fear of total loss of crops due to unreliable rainfall especially those who depend on rain-fed farming. This problem is brought about by the gradual change in weather patterns that lead to change in climatic conditions. Climate change poses a significant threat to the global food system. Those depending on irrigation are not at ease as well because as climate changes, the available resources for water also change hence becoming a problem to the farmers.
How crops interact with their surrounding affects their survival. Ecology defines how organisms interact with each other. The ecology, in this case, includes pests, weeds, and diseases. These three parts of the ecology are what is stressing farmers worldwide. All crops are affected by pests, weeds, and diseases and controlling them becomes a problem especially they become resistant to most used chemicals. Pests and diseases cause almost eighty-ninety percent loss and sometimes a total loss in the case of heavy infestation. The pests, weeds, and diseases are not the only hazardous factors but also the cost of managing the crop. Currently crop breeders are working hard to produce resistant varieties to some pests, weeds, and diseases but still, they find it costly.
In the economics sector, things are not that level as well. Farmers have many problems here as well. There is no ready market for the products, and when it is available, the prices are discouraging despite the resilience of the farmers. How resources are also allocated in the agricultural sector by most governments, the distribution and consumption of the products affect the economics at all corners. Most governments do not promote local product consumption but imported products which is inauspicious to farmers. This makes the farmers end up selling their produce at a throw price which is unprofitable and unacceptable. These among the many problems facing farmers should be discussed collectively and responsibly.
However, there is also some good news. A lot of people are taking interest in organic urban gardening.