Home All Things Gardening How to Make Organic Fertilizers: Compost, Vermicompost, Bokashi, FPJ, FFJ, FAA

How to Make Organic Fertilizers: Compost, Vermicompost, Bokashi, FPJ, FFJ, FAA

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Organic fertilizers refer to any product in solid or liquid form of plant or animal origin that has undergone substantial decomposition that can supply available nutrients to plants.

Composting

It is a process which allows a mixture of organic raw materials to decompose under controlled conditions to produce a stable end-product which is the organic fertilizer or soil conditioner.

Composting Process

  • Select a shaded area that will provide protection from heavy rains which will cause excessive wetting and subsequent washing away of nutrients.
  • Gather raw materials and pile up in alternate layers.

Layer1: Livestock manure

Layer 2: Plant residues

Layer 3: Livestock manure

Layer 4: Plant residues

Layer 5: Livestock manure

  • Water every layer with EMAS to enhance the composting process. Dilution rate: 20ml EMAS for every liter of water.
  • Cover the pile to retain moisture and to build heat in the compost pile. This is important to build heat in the composst pile. This is important to kill disease-causing organisms and pathogens.
  • Turnover or mix the pile after one month to aerate the pile.
  • Mix the pile again 2 weeks after the first turning.
  • After 2 weeks, harvest and use the compost.

Vermicomposting

  • Another method of composting which makes use of earthworm.
  • Instead of manually turning the pile, earthworms, particularly African Night Crawler, are introduced in the pile to eat semi-decomposed raw materials.
  • The worms’ excreta is called “vermicast”.
  • It is normally found on the surface of the pile and looks like rough coffee ground.
  • Vermicompost is the remaining decomposed materials containing some of the vermicast, earthworm cocoons and small earthworms.

Guidelines: Site Selection

  • Area should be near the source of substrates or compost materials
  • It should not be prone to flooding
  • Accessible to water source
  • Shaded preferably with roofing

Guidelines: Bin Preparation

  • Use hollow or any barrier like fallen tree trunks, banana  trunks or bamboo to enclose a rectangular area.
  • Line the flooring with woven sack.

Guidelines: Raw Materials Selection

  • Select materials accordingly

o   Identify materials rich in nitrogen.

  • Animal manure except dog and cat
  • leguminous plants

o   Identify materials rich in carbon such as grass, corn stalks, rice straw, saw dust.

o   Farm waste, market waste, kitchen waste

  • Consider the size and kind of materials.

o   Small and shredded materials decompose easily

o   Choose materials that are easily composted like banana leaves, stalks and vegetable or fruit peelings.

  • Remove unwanted materials

o   Meat scraps

o   Fats, oil and grease

o   Human waste

o   Dog and cat waste

o   Diseased plants

Guidelines: Substrate Preparation

  • Place substrate in alternate layers

o   Layer 1: Livestock manure

o   Layer 2: Plant residues

o   Layer 3: Livestock manure

o   Layer 4: Plant residues

o   Layer 5: Livestock manure

  • Water every layer with EMAS to enhance the composting process. Dilution rate: 20ml EMAS for every liter of water.
  • Cover the pile to retain moisture and to build heat in the compost pile and leave for 2 weeks. This is important to kill disease causing organism or pathogens.

Guidelines: Deploying Worms

  • After 2 weeks, place worm in the semi-decomposed substrate at a ratio of 1 kg per square meter and cover with net or leaves.
  • Prevent the substrate from drying up. Water whenever necessary.
  • Protect worms from natural predators.

Guidelines: Harvesting

  • Harvesting is subject to the size of the bin, quantity of worms, kind of materials and maintenance of substrate. On an average, 30 – 40 days after placing the worms in the bin, you will observe vermicast forming on the top layer.
  • Harvesting methods:

o   Manual pick. Pick the worms by hand and transfer to new worm bed.

o   Migration. Move the contents of the whole bed to one side. Fill the empty half with new substrate. Worms will move freely to the new feed. Harvest the castings left by the worms.

o   Top harvest. Scrape from the top of bed.

  • Air dry for 2 days
  • Strain the vermicompost to separate remaining substrate.

Guidelines: Production Sustainability

  • On the day when the worms are placed in the first bin, prepare a new substrate and place on the second bin.
  • One the last day of harvesting from the first bin, the worms can be transferred to the second bin.
  • With this scheme, there will be a continuous supply and the number of worms increases.

Bokashi

An organic fertilizer that makes use of microbial inoculant to hasten the decomposition of animal manure mixed with other solid ingredients.

Materials

  • Solid ingredients

o   Carbon materials (80% of the total volume)

  • Rice bran (darak)
  • Rice husk (ipa)
  • Chopped rice straw (dayami)
  • Corn stalk (catawan ng mais)

o   Nitrogen materials (20% of the total volume)

  • Copra meal
  • Fish meal
  • Ipil ipil
  • Kakawate
  • Liquid Ingredients

o   EMAS

o   Molasses

o   Water

Recommended Mix

  • D3 (Gaspang) – 10 kilo
  • Carbonized rice hull – 10 kilo
  • Copra meal – 5 kilo
  • EMAS – 100 ml
  • Molasses – 100ml
  • Water – 10 liter

Procedures

  • Dilute EMAS and molasses in water.
  • Mix all the solid ingredients in watering with the diluted solution until fully mixed.
  • Check for 30% – 40% moisture content.
  • Place in an airtight container and ferment for 2-3 weeks.
  • Bokashi is ready to use when it has a sweet-sour fermented smell.

Usage

  • Feed additive for poultry and livestock
  • Soil fertilizer
  • Composting Agent
  • Treatment of kitchen garbage
  • Key ingredient to mud balls for the treatment of pond, lakes, rivers, sewage systems
  • Treatment of manures

Fermented Plant Juice (growth enhancer)

Materials

  • Fresh plants (20%  of container volume)

o   Kangkong

o   Leguminous plants

o   Grasses

o   Herbs

o   Young shoots

o   Banana stalks

  • Water (70% of container volume)
  • EMAS (3% of water volume)
  • Molasses (3% of water volume)

Recommended Mix

Based on a 20-liter container

  • Fresh plants – 2 kilos
  • Water – 14 liters
  • EMAS – 420 ml
  • Molasses – 420 ml

Procedures

  • Clean and wash palnts. Drain for 5 minutes
  • Chop raw materials and place inside a net.
  • Add EMAS and molasses into the water.
  • Dip the net with the chopped materials into the liquid solution.
  • Lay a nylon screen on top and place stones to prevent the net from floating.
  • Cover the pail tightly and apply markings.
  • Ferment for 7 days.

Points of consideration

  • Properly fermented FPJ has a sweet-sour smell and a light brown color.
  • Plants used will turn into brown.
  • After fermentation, strain the concoction and keep in air-tight container
  • Store in a dark, cool place.
  • Shelf-life is 3 months.

Usage

  • Dilute 10ml of FPJ per liter of water to be used for drenching or spraying.
  • Diluted FPJ should be used within the day
  • Apply twice a week.

Fermented Fruit Juice

Materials

  • Fresh fruits such as banana fruit, papaya, squash
  • Molasses
  • EMAS

Recommended mix

  • Banana fruit – 1 kilo
  • Papaya – 1 kilo
  • Squash – 1 kilo
  • Molasses – 3 kilos
  • EMAS – 60 ml

Procedures

  • Clean and wash fruits. Drain for 5 minutes.
  • Slice fruits to an inch size.
  • Mix fruits thoroughly in a plastic pail.
  • Mix EMAS and molasses with fruits thoroughly.
  • Lay a nylon screen on top and place stones to present the net from floating.
  • Cover the pail tightly and apply markings.
  • Ferment for 7 days

Points of Consideration

  • Properly fermented FFJ has a sweet-sour smell and a light brown color.
  • After fermentation, strain the concoction and keep in air-tight container.
  • Store in a dark, cool place
  • Shelf-life is 3 months

Usage

  • Dilute 10 ml of FFJ per liter of water to be used for drenching or spraying
  • Diluted FFJ should be used within the day
  • Apply twice a week.

Fish Amino Acid (Protein Supplement)

Materials

  • Fresh fish, fish scraps, gills or innards
  • Molasses
  • EMAS

Recommended Mix

  • Fish/fish parts – 3 kilos
  • Molasses – 3 kilos
  • EMAS – 60 ml

Procedures

  • Clean and wash fish and fish parts. Drain for 5 minutes
  • Slice to an inch size.
  • Mix all parts thoroughly in a plastic pail.
  • Mix EMAS and molasses with fish and fish parts
  • Lay a nylon screen on top and place stones to prevent the net from floating.
  • Cover the pail tightly and apply markings
  • Ferment for 15 days.

Points of consideration

  • Properly fermented FAA has a sweet-hour smell.
  • After fermentation, strain the concoction and keep in air-tight container.
  • Store in a dark, cool place.
  • Shelf-life is 3 months.

Usage

  • Dilute 10ml of FAA per liter of water to be used for drenching or spraying.
  • Diluted FFJ should be used within the day.
  • Apply twice a week.

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